Table 2

Emotional face processing studies: between group fMRI findings (major depressive disorder (MDD) > healthy controls (HCs))

Brain region

BA

Sad > Baseline

Fear > Baseline

Angry > Baseline

Happy > Baseline

Disgust > Baseline

Author/year

Reference


Limbic lobe


Amygdala

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Amygdala

Peluso et al. 2009

[35]


Amygdala

a

a

Sheline et al. 2001

[34]


Amygdala

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


Amygdala

Victor et al. 2010

[29]


Amygdala

Zhong et al. 2011

[36]


Extended amygdala

Matthews et al. 2008

[28]


Amygdala/hippocampus

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


PHG/amygdala

b

Surguladze et al. 2005

[31]


Amygdala/hippocampus

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


Hippocampus

Lee et al. 2008

[38]


Extended limbic system


Insula

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Insula

13

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Insula

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Insula

Surguladze et al. 2010

[39]


Insula

13

Zhong et al. 2011

[36]


Insula

Townsend et al. 2010

[40]


Insula/PHG

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


PHG

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


PHG/globus pallidus/anterior thalamus

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


Thalamus

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Striatum


Putamen

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Putamen

b

b

Surguladze et al. 2005

[31]


Putamen

Townsend et al. 2010

[40]


Putamen/globus pallidus

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Uncus/amygdala/caudate/putamen

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


Caudate

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Caudate

Lee et al. 2008

[38]


Caudate

Scheuerecker et al. 2010

[41]


Frontal lobe


Motor cortex


Premotor cortex

6

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Middle frontal gyrus

6

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


SMA

Scheuerecker et al. 2010

[41]


Precentral gyrus

4

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Precentral gyrus

4

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Precentral gyrus

4

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Precentral gyrus

4,6

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Precentral gyrus

Scheuerecker et al. 2010

[41]


Postcentral gyrus

1, 2, 3

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Postcentral gyrus

Frodl et al. 2009

[43]


Postcentral gyrus

2

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


DLPFC


DLPFC

44, 45, 9

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


DLPFC

9

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Superior frontal gyrus

a

Frodl et al. 2009

[43]


Superior frontal gyrus

8

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Superior frontal gyrus

8

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Superior frontal gyrus

8

Zhong et al. 2011

[36]


Middle frontal gyrus

a

Frodl et al. 2009

[43]


Middle frontal gyrus

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


Middle frontal gyrus

8

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Middle frontal gyrus

8

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


VLPFC


VLPFC

10, 47, 45, 46

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


VLPFC

11

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


VLPFC

10/47

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Middle frontal gyrus

10/47

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Middle frontal gyrus

Scheuerecker et al. 2010

[41]


Cingulum


Anterior cingulum

32

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Anterior cingulum

24/32

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Anterior cingulum

25

Zhong et al. 2011

[36]


Sg anterior cingulum

25

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Sg anterior cingulum

24/32

a

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Anterior cingulum

24

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


Middle cingulum

23/24

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Middle cingulum

33/24, 32/24

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Middle cingulum

a

Frodl et al. 2009

[43]


Middle cingulum

23

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Posterior cingulum

23/31, 29/31

Fu et al. 2004

[32]


Posterior cingulum

31

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Posterior cingulum

31

Fu et al. 2007

[63]


Posterior cingulum

31

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Medial PFC


Inferior frontal gyrus

47

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Inferior frontal gyrus

47/45

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Inferior frontal gyrus

45

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Inferior frontal gyrus

47

Zhong et al. 2011

[36]


Medial PFC

10, 11, 47

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


DMPFC

8

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


VMPFC

10/32

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Orbitofrontal cortex


Orbitofrontal cortex

47

Surguladze et al. 2010

[39]


Orbitofrontal cortex

11

Lawrence et al. 2004

[37]


Orbitofrontal cortex

11

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Orbitofrontal cortex

Lee et al. 2008

[38]


Orbitofrontal cortex

Lee et al. 2008

[38]


Temporal lobe


Middle temporal gyrus

21

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Middle temporal gyrus

21/22

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Middle temporal gyrus

21

Surguladze et al. 2010

[39]


Middle temporal gyrus

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


Middle temporal gyrus/inferior temporal gyrus

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


Middle temporal gyrus

21, 37

Townsend et al. 2010

[40]


Inferior temporal gyrus

20

Gotlib et al. 2005

[45]


Inferior temporal gyrus

37

Surguladze et al. 2010

[39]


Inferior temporal gyrus

20

Townsend et al. 2010

[40]


Superior temporal gyrus

42

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Superior temporal gyrus

42

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Fusiform gyrus

37

Fu et al. 2008

[33]


Fusiform gyrus

20

Keedwell et al. 2005

[42]


Fusiform gyrus

19

b

b

Surguladze et al. 2005

[31]


Fusiform gyrus

Suslow et al. 2010

[30]


The table includes whole brain and region of interest (ROI) results of the described studies in Table 1, section 'Whole Brain and ROI studies'. The table does not include results on other study aspects such as treatment response or connectivity analyses.

aDue to deactivations in controls.

bLinear trend for increasing intensities of sadness/happiness.

BA, Brodmann's area; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DMPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; PHG, parahippocampal gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area; Sg, subgenual; VLPFC, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; VMPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Stuhrmann et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2011 1:10   doi:10.1186/2045-5380-1-10

Open Data