Table 2

Studies of biased selection of threat interpretations in anxious youth with studies presenting conflicting results to adult data italicised
Authors Sample size and age information Anxiety measure Nature of anxiety effect reported
Ambiguous Scenarios
Dodd et al., [50] Anxious group = 57 (4.0 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations
Healthy group = 74 (4.0 yrs) (cohen’s d = 0.51)
Schneider et al., [[51]] SAD/SP groups = 102 (8.8 yrs) Clinical diagnosis No group difference in selection of threat interpretations
Healthy group = 42 (9.3 yrs)
Waters et al., [52] Anxious group = 15 (9.5 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations p2= .35)
Healthy group = 14 (9.4 yrs)
Waters et al., [25] Anxious group = 19 (9.8 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations p2= .15)
Healthy group = 19 (10.1 yrs)
Hughes et al., [53] Anxious group = 34 (9.9 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations (η2 = .09)
Healthy group = 34 (10.8 yrs)
Barrett et al., [54] Anxious group = 152 (7–14 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group and clinical control group selected more threatening interpretations
Clinical control group = 27 (10.0 yrs)
Healthy group = 26 (10.2 yrs)
Creswell et al., [[55]] Anxious group = 27 (11.0 yrs) Clinical diagnosis, No group difference but anxiety symptoms correlated with number of threat interpretations (η2 = .09)
Healthy group = 33 (10.8 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms
Bögels et al., [56] Anxious group = 15 (12.2 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations
Clinical control group = 15 (13.5 yrs)
Healthy group = 15 (11.9 yrs)
Dalgleish et al., [57] Anxious group = 2 (14.0 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening expectations for the future, but only for other people
Depression group = 15 (15.1 yrs)
Healthy group = 43 (13.6 yrs)
Dineen et al., [58] Whole sample = 50 (8.4 yrs) Trait Anxiety High levels of anxiety correlated with more threatening interpretations of intentions (when asked about other people)
Eley et al., [[59]] Whole sample = 600 twins (8.0 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety correlated with threat interpretations; no significant correlation once depressive scores regressed out
Bell-Dolan, [[60]] High Anxious group = 52 (4th-5thgrade) Anxiety Symptoms No group difference in selection of threat interpretations
Low Anxious group = 38 (4th-5thgrade)
Creswell et al., [61] Whole sample = 65 (8–10 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety symptoms correlated with threat interpretations at 2 out of 3 time-points of their study
Muris et al., [62] High Anxious group = 28 (9.6 yrs) Social Anxiety High anxious group selected more threatening interpretations
Low Anxious group = 224 (10.2 yrs)
Muris et al., [63] Whole sample = 299 (9.8 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Bögels et al., [64] High Anxious group = 55 (9.9 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High anxious group selected more threatening interpretations
Low Anxious group = 41 (10.0 yrs)
Muris et al., [65] Whole sample = 157 (10.1 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Muris et al., [66] Whole sample = 76 (10.4 yrs) Social Anxiety, Trait High levels of anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Anxiety
Morren et al., [67] Whole sample = 122 (10.5 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety symptoms correlated with more threat interpretations at 1 out of 2 time-points of their study
Muris et al., [68] Whole sample = 105 (10.5 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High levels of anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Vassilopoulos et al., [69] Whole sample = 109 (11.3 yrs) Social Anxiety High levels of social anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Higa et al., [70] Whole sample = 175 (11.5 yrs) Social Anxiety High levels of social anxiety predicted more threatening interpretations (β = 0.49, cohen’s d = 1.06)
Miers et al., [71] High Anxious group = 37 (13.7 yrs) Social Anxiety High anxious group selected more negative interpretationsp2= .31.)
Low Anxious group = 36 (13.6 yrs)
Salemink etal., [72] Whole sample = 170 (14.5 yrs) State Anxiety, Trait Anxiety High levels of state and trait anxiety correlated with more threat interpretations
Ambiguous Words
Taghavi et al., [73] GAD group = 17 (13.7 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group selected more threatening interpretations of homographs(cohen’s d = 0.84)
Healthy group = 40 (13.3 yrs)
Hadwin et al., [74] Whole sample = 40 (8.5 yrs) Trait Anxiety High levels of trait anxiety predicted more threatening interpretations of homophones
Eley et al., [[59]] Whole sample = 300 twin pairs (8.0 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms No significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and selection of threatening interpretations ofhomophonesonce depressive symptoms were regressed out
Face emotion recognition and ratings
Simonian et al., [75] SP group = 15 (12.2 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group made more errors recognizing happy, sad and disgust faces(cohen’s d = −1.55)
Healthy group = 14 (11.0 yrs)
McClure et al., [[76]] Anxious group = 10 (12.9 yrs) Clinical diagnosis No group difference in fearful ratings of negativefaces
Healthy group = 25 (13.5 yrs)
Beesdo et al., [[77]] Anxious group = 16 (12.8 yrs) Clinical diagnosis No group difference in fearful ratings of negativefaces
Healthy group = 45 (13.9 yrs)
Easter et al., [78] Anxious group = 15 (13.1 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group made more errors recognizing happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces of adults, but not of children
Healthy group = 11 (12.5 yrs)
Richards et al., [45] High Anxious group = 24 (11.9 yrs) Trait Anxiety High anxious group labelled positive faces significantly more often as angry
Low Anxious group = 26 (11.0 yrs)

GAD Generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, SAD Separation anxiety disorder, SP social phobia, ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, MDD Major Depressive Disorder, SCR skin conductance responses.

Lau et al.

Lau et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2012 2:12   doi:10.1186/2045-5380-2-12

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