Table 1

Summary of Neuroimaging studies predicting treatment response in anxiety disorders
Article Disorder Imaging Treatment type Sample sizes Outcome measure Findings
Swedo et al. [32] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Clomipramine (dose and duration not specified) OCD: 18 Healthy: 18 OCR Responders: ≥ 40% reduction in OCR (11 R, 6 NR) Pre-treatment rCMRglu in the right ACC and right OFC was lower in clomipramine R vs. NR.
Saxena et al. [33] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Paroxetine (8-12 weeks; 40 mg/d max) OCD: 20 YBOCS and CGI Responders: ≥ 25% reduction in YBOCS and CGI of much improved or very much improved (11 R, 9 NR) Lower pre-treatment rCMRglu in bilateral OFC predicted better response to paroxetine.
Saxena et al. [34] OCD, MDD, OCD + MDD PET-FDG: resting state Paroxetine (8-12 weeks; 30-60 mg/d) OCD: 27 MDD: 27 OCD + MDD: 17 YBOCS, HAM-D Greater pre-treatment rCMRglu in the caudate predicted greater improvement in OCD symptoms in the OCD groups. Lower rCMRglu in the amygdala predicted more improvement in MDD symptoms in MDD group and in all Ss combined. Greater pre-treatment rCMRglu in the medial frontal gyrus predicted improvement in MDD symptoms in all Ss.
Hendler et al. [35] OCD SPECT: symptom provocation vs. relax Sertraline (6 months; 200 mg/d max) OCD: 26 YBOCS Responders: ≥ 30% reduction in YBOCS (13 R, 13 NR) R had lower pre-treatment perfusion during symptom provocation in dorsal/caudal ACC and higher perfusion in right caudate vs. NR.
Rauch et al. [36] OCD PET-015: symptom provocation vs. neutral Fluvoxamine (12 weeks; 300 mg/d max) OCD: 9 YBOCS Lower rCBF in OFC and higher rCBF in PCC predicted better response.
Sanematsu et al. [37] OCD fMRI: symptom provocation vs. neutral Fluvoxamine (12 weeks; 200 mg/d max) OCD: 17 YBOCS Pretreatment activation of right cerebellum and left superior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with YBOCS improvement.
Ho Pian et al. [38] OCD SPECT: resting state Fluvoxamine (12 weeks; 300 mg/d max) OCD: 15 YBOCS Responders: ≥25% reduction in YBOCS (7 R, 8 NR) Pre-treatment cerebellar and whole brain rCBF was significantly higher in R vs. NR.
Buchsbaum et al. [39] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Risperidone or placebo augmentation (8 weeks; 3 mg/d max) OCD: 15 Risperidone: 9 Placebo: 6 YBOCS Responders: ≥ 25% reduction in YBOCS and/or CGI Improvement rating of very much improved or much improved (4 R, 5 NR) Pre-treatment rCMRglu was lower in the striatum and higher in the ventral ACC in R vs. NR.
Brody et al. [40] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Fluoxetine (10 weeks; 60 mg/d) or group BT (10 weeks) OCD: 27 Fluoxetine: 9 CBT: 18 YBOCS Greater pre-treatment rCMRglu in the left OFC was associated with a better response to BT. In this same region, lower rCMRglu was associated with better response to fluoxetine.
Hoexter et al. [41] OCD mMRI Fluoxetine (12 weeks; 80 mg/d max) or group CBT (12 weekly sessions) OCD: 29 Fluoxetine: 14 CBT: 15 YBOCS Lower pre-treatment gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex predicted better response to fluoxetine. Greater gray matter density in subgenual ACC predicted better response to CBT.
Rauch et al. [44] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Anterior cingulotomy OCD: 11 YBOCS Greater pre-operative rCMRglu in posterior cingulate predicted greater improvement.
Van Laere et al. [45] OCD PET-FDG: resting state Stimulation of anterior capsule OCD: 6 Controls: 20 YBOCS Greater pre-operative rCMRglu in the subgenual ACC predicted greater improvement.
Bryant et al. [68] PTSD mMRI CBT (8 weekly sessions) PTSD: 13 TENP: 13 Healthy: 13 CAPS Responders: no longer met diagnostic criteria (7 R, 6 NR) Greater pre-treatment gray matter density in the rACC predicted greater improvement.
Bryant et al. [19] PTSD fMRI: masked fearful vs. neutral faces CBT (8 weekly sessions) PTSD: 14 Healthy: 14 CAPS Responders: ≥ 50% reduction in CAPS (7 R, 7 NR) Lower pre-treatment amygdala and rACC activation predicted greater improvement.
Nardo et al. [69] PTSD mMRI EMDR (5 sessions) PTSD: 21 TENP: 22 Responders: no longer met diagnostic criteria (10 R, 5 NR) R had greater gray matter density in the insula, amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate, and middle, precentral, and dorsal medial frontal gyri.
Whalen et al. [75] GAD fMRI: fearful vs. neutral/happy faces Venlafaxine (8 weeks; 225 mg/d max) GAD: 15 Healthy: 15 HAM-A Lower pre-treatment amygdala activation and greater rACC activation predicted greater improvement in anxiety.
Nitschke et al. [73] GAD fMRI: anticipation of aversive vs. neutral images Venlafaxine (8 weeks; 225 mg/d max) GAD: 14 Healthy: 12 HAM-A and Penn State Worry Questionnaire Greater pre-treatment rACC activation predicted greater improvement in anxiety.
McClure et al. [76] GAD fMRI: fearful vs. happy faces Fluoxetine (8 weeks; 40 mg/d max) or CBT (8 weekly sessions) GAD: 12 Fluoxetine: 5 CBT: 7 CGI Greater pre-treatment amygdala activation predicted greater improvement.
Evans et al. [87] SAD PET-FDG: resting state Tiagabine (6 weeks; 16 mg/d max) SAD: 12 Healthy: 10 LSAS Responders: ≥ 50% reduction in LSAS scores (7 R, 5 NR) Voxelwise correlations were not significant. Pre-treatment rCMRglu was lower in subcallosal ACC in R compared to healthy controls.
Doehrmann et al. [13] SAD fMRI: 1-back task, angry vs. neutral faces CBT (12 weekly sessions) SAD: 39 LSAS Greater pre-treatment activation in dorsal and ventral occipitotemporal cortex predicted greater improvement.

ACC anterior cingulate cortex, BT behavioral therapy, CAPS Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, CBT cognitive-behavioral therapy, CGI Clinical Global Impression scale, EMDR eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, GAD generalized anxiety disorder, HAM-A Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, HAM-D Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, LSAS Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, MDD major depressive disorder, mg/d milligrams per day, mMRI morphometric magnetic resonance imaging, NR non-responders, OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCR Obsessive Compulsive Rating scale, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, PET-FDG positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose, PET-015 positron emission tomography with oxygen-15, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, R responders, rACC rostral anterior cingulate cortex, rCBF regional cerebral blood flow, rCMRglu regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, SAD social anxiety disorder, SPECT single photon emission computed tomography, Ss subjects, TENP trauma-exposed non-PTSD, YBOCS Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale.

Shin et al.

Shin et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2013 3:15   doi:10.1186/2045-5380-3-15

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