Table 1

Summary of studies investigating associations between genetic variation and response to psychological therapy in mood and anxiety disorders
Authors Diagnosis Sample Treatment Results
5HTTLPR/rs25531
Wang et al. [58] PTSD N = 35 12wk prolonged exposure therapy or 12 wk Escitalopram (N = 20) No significant association with treatment response in exposure therapy group
Bryant et al. [56] PTSD N = 45, Caucasian, 8 × 90 min weekly individual CBT No significant association at post-treatment. At 6mth follow-up, higher % of Si allele than L allele carriers met PTSD criteria and had significantly higher symptom scores
Mage = ~ 43 yrs, 33% female
Lonsdorf et al. [59] PD ± AG N = 69, Caucasian, 10 × 2 hr weekly group (N = 38) or internet-delivered (N = 31) CBT No significant association with treatment response
Mage = ~ 35 yrs, 62% female
Furmark et al. [60] SAD N = 204, Mage = 38 yrs, 9 wk internet delivered CBT or waitlist control No significant association with treatment response
60% female
Kohen et al. [61] DEP (post- stroke) N = 61, mixed ethnicity 9 × positive problem solving plus antidepressant vs. usual care plus antidepressant SS and SL carriers had a significantly greater mean percentage reduction in depression ratings and more likely to be in remission at 9-week follow-up than those in the control group
Sakolsky et al. [62] SEP; GAD; SAD N = 211, Caucasian, Sertraline, 14 sessions of CBT, combination therapy or 12 wk placebo No significant association with treatment response
7-17 yrs,
Eley et al. [10] ANX N = 359, Caucasian, 10-12 session group or individual CBT or guided self-help No significant association at post treatment. At follow-up, higher % of SS genotype carriers free of anxiety diagnoses than SL/LL genotype carriers. SS genotype carriers had significantly greater reduction in symptom severity scores
Mage = 9.44 yrs, 49% female
Hedman et al. [63] SAD N = 126, 98% Caucasian, Mage = ~ 35 yrs, 36% female 15 × 2.5 hr weekly group (N = 62) or internet-delivered (N = 64) CBT No significant association with treatment response
Bockting et al. [64] Recurrent DEP N = 180, Caucasian, Brief CBT vs. treatment as usual No significant association with time to recurrence
Mage = 45 yrs, 74% female
STin2 VNTR
Kohen et al. [61] DEP (post- stroke) N = 64, mixed ethnicity 9 × positive problem solving plus antidepressant vs. usual care plus antidepressant 9/12 and 12/12 genotype carriers in intervention group had a significantly greater mean percentage reduction in depression scores and greater likelihood of remission at 9 wk follow-up than controls
Sakolsky et al. [62] SEP; GAD; SAD N = 211, Caucasian, Sertraline, 14 sessions of CBT, combination therapy or 12 wk placebo At 12-week assessment STin2 12-copy variant carriers showed significantly greater improvement.
7-17 yrs
HTR2A rs7997012
Kotte et al. [65] DEP N = 58, 100% male 16-wk group CBT G allele predicted significantly larger reduction in BDI scores across treatment compared to A allele carriers
TPH2 G-703T
Furmark et al. [60] SAD N = 204, Mage = 38 yrs, 9 wk internet delivered CBT or waitlist control In the CBT group, a better treatment response was observed in TPH2 GG homozygotes relative to T allele carriers
60% female
MAOA-u VNTR
Reif et al. [66] PD + AG N = 288, Caucasian 12 × twice weekly CBT Carriers of the long, higher activity alleleii had significantly worse treatment outcome, elevated heart rate, greater fear and panic attacks during a behavioral avoidance task and failure to habituate during repetitive exposure
COMT val158met
Lonsdorf et al. [59] PD ± AG N = 69, Caucasian, 10 × 2 hr weekly group (N = 38) or internet-delivered (N = 31) CBT No significant effect of COMTval158met genotype on change in anxiety or depression scores across cognitive modules (weeks 1-3). met/met genotype carriers had significantly smaller reduction in anxiety scores across exposure modules (weeks 4-9) compared to val-carriers
Mage = ~ 35 yrs, 62% female
Hedman et al. [63] SAD N = 126, 98% Caucasian, Mage = ~ 35 yrs, 36% female 15 × 2.5 hr weekly group (N = 62) or internet-delivered (N = 64) CBT No significant association with treatment response
NGF rs6330
Lester et al. [57] ANX N =374, Caucasian, 10-12 session group or individual CBT or guided self-help No significant association with treatment response at post treatment. At follow-up, children with one or more copies of T allele of NGF rs6330 were significantly more likely to be free of anxiety diagnosis
Mage = 9.46 yrs, 49% female
BDNF val66met; rs7934165; rs1519480; rs11030104
Sakolsky et al. [67] SEP; GAD; SAD N = 211, Caucasian, Sertraline, 14 sessions of CBT, combination therapy or 12 wk placebo No significant association with treatment response
7-17 yrs
Lester et al. [57] ANX N = 374, Caucasian, 10-12 session group or individual CBT or guided self-help No significant association with treatment response
Mage = 9.46 yrs, 49% female
Hedman et al. [63] SAD N = 126, 98% Caucasian, Mage = ~ 35 yrs, 36% female 15 × 2.5 hr weekly group (N = 62) or internet-delivered (N = 64) CBT No significant association with treatment response
Fullana et al. [68] OCD N = 106, Caucasian, 20 × 45 min weekly exposure based CBT plus SSRI Met allele carriers significantly less likely to respond to treatment than non-met allele carriers. Genotype predicted response only and not change in severity scores
Mage = 33 yrs, 50% female
GRIN2B rs1019385
Sakolsky et al. [67] SEP; GAD; SAD N = 211, Caucasian, Sertraline, 14 sessions of CBT, combination therapy or 12 wk placebo No significant association with treatment response
7-17 yrs
GRIK4 rs1954787
Sakolsky et al. [67] SEP; GAD; SAD N = 211, Caucasian, Sertraline, 14 sessions of CBT, combination therapy or 12 wk placebo Significant association with treatment response at 12 week assessment
7-17 yrs

PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder; PD ±AG = panic disorder with or without agoraphobia; SAD = social anxiety disorder; DEP = depression; SEP = separation anxiety disorder, GAD = generalized anxiety disorder; ANX = all anxiety disorders; OCD = obsessive compulsive disorder.

IS allele group defined as SASA, SALA, SALG, SGLG, LALG, LGLG and L allele group defined as LALA.ii Long, high activity risk allele group defined as 3.5, 4 and 5 copy repeat allele males, and 2/4, 3/4, 3.5/4, 4/4, and 4/5 copy repeat allele females. Short, low activity allele group defined as 2 or 3 copy repeat allele males and 2/2, 2/3 and 3/3 females.

Lester and Eley

Lester and Eley Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2013 3:4   doi:10.1186/2045-5380-3-4

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