BOLD reactivity. Patients with PMDD had enhanced reactivity to socially relevant stimuli as compared to non-social stimuli in two regions of interest, the (A) left amygdala (−21, 2, −15; k = 11; z = 2.18; P = 0.015) and (B) the right insula (45, −9, −2, k = 10, z = 2.13, p = 0.016) when compared to healthy controls in the luteal phase. (C) Women with PMDD also had attenuated reactivity to social stimuli in the midline ACC in two clusters marked in red and yellow respectively (9, 33, 23; k = 12; z = 2.22; p = 0.013; and 3, 50, 11; k = 27; z = 3.23; p = 0.001). All anatomic localizations are given in Talairach coordinates. Brighter colors represent higher t scores. Below the brain images, contrast estimate plots are given for the peak voxel of each cluster. Healthy controls are given in the left panels and PMDD to the right. ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; PMDD, premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Gingnell et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2014 4:3 doi:10.1186/2045-5380-4-3